Importance: Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) has become the criterion standard in case of inconclusive noninvasive presurgical epilepsy workup. However, up to 40% of patients are subsequently not offered surgery because the seizure-onset zone is less focal than expected or cannot be identified. Objective: To predict focality of the seizure-onset zone in SEEG, the 5-point 5-SENSE score was developed and validated. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a monocentric cohort study for score development followed by multicenter validation with patient selection intervals between February 2002 to October 2018 and May 2002 to December 2019. The minimum follow-up period was 1 year. Patients with drug-resistant epilepsy undergoing SEEG at the Montreal Neurological Institute were analyzed to identify a focal seizure-onset zone. Selection criteria were 2 or more seizures in electroencephalography and availability of complete neuropsychological and neuroimaging data sets. For validation, patients from 9 epilepsy centers meeting these criteria were included. Analysis took place between May and July 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Based on SEEG, patients were grouped as focal and nonfocal seizure-onset zone. Demographic, clinical, electroencephalography, neuroimaging, and neuropsychology data were analyzed, and a multiple logistic regression model for developing a score to predict SEEG focality was created and validated in an independent sample. Results: A total of 128 patients (57 women [44.5%]; median [range] age, 31 [13-58] years) were analyzed for score development and 207 patients (97 women [46.9%]; median [range] age, 32 [16-70] years) were analyzed for validation. The score comprised the following 5 predictive variables: focal lesion on structural magnetic resonance imaging, absence of bilateral independent spikes in scalp electroencephalography, localizing neuropsychological deficit, strongly localizing semiology, and regional ictal scalp electroencephalography onset. The 5-SENSE score had an optimal mean (SD) probability cutoff for identifying a focal seizure-onset zone of 37.6 (3.5). Area under the curve, specificity, and sensitivity were 0.83, 76.3% (95% CI, 66.7-85.8), and 83.3% (95% CI, 72.30-94.1), respectively. Validation showed 76.0% (95% CI, 67.5-84.0) specificity and 52.3% (95% CI, 43.0-61.5) sensitivity. Conclusions and Relevance: High specificity in score development and validation confirms that the 5-SENSE score predicts patients where SEEG is unlikely to identify a focal seizure-onset zone. It is a simple and useful tool for assisting clinicians to reduce unnecessary invasive diagnostic burden on patients and overutilization of limited health care resources..
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology