Development of the Brief Inventory of Perceived Stress

Kenneth A. Lehman, Michelle Nicole Burns, Emily C. Gagen, David C. Mohr*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Objectives: To provide a measure of perceived stress that is psychometrically superior to existing instruments and novel in dimensionality. Design: At 4-week intervals over 48 weeks, patients with multiple sclerosis (N = 138) completed 26 items from the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ). Results: Extant factor analytic models of the PSS fit poorly. A new measure using nine PSS and PSQ items, the Brief Inventory of Perceived Stress (BIPS), demonstrated good fit, construct validity, and stability with 3 factors: Lack of Control, Pushed, and Conflict and Imposition. Conclusions: Items commonly used to measure perceived stress may have a more sophisticated underlying structure than previously thought. The BIPS's multidimensionality and longitudinal stability offer potential benefits in conceptualization and outcome prediction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)631-644
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Clinical Psychology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2012


  • Factor analysis
  • Factorial invariance
  • Measurement
  • Perceived stress
  • Psychometric properties
  • Stress appraisal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology

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