Glomerular diseases are among the hardest diseases to diagnose. They can affect multiple organs (and thereby cause multiple symptoms) or only the kidney. While specific diseases may have a "classic" presentation, the overlap among presentations is considerable, and often the only way to diagnose a glomerular disease is by a kidney biopsy. There are many diagnostic tests that can help diagnose a glomerular disease, and more are being identified. This chapter focuses on serologic and urine tests that can be used to help diagnose a glomerular disease. The main diagnostic considerations of the two glomerular syndromes, nephritic and nephrotic, are discussed individually. In a patient with nephritic or nephrotic syndrome, clinical judgment based on the presentation will always be needed to determine if other diagnostic tests should be sent off in place of a kidney biopsy or along with a kidney biopsy.
- Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA ab)
- Nephritic syndrome
- Nephrotic syndrome
- Phospholipase A2 receptor 1 antibody (PLA2R1 ab)
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