Diaphragm and Phrenic Nerve Ultrasound in COVID-19 Patients and Beyond: Imaging Technique, Findings, and Clinical Applications

Zaid Patel, Colin K. Franz, Ankit Bharat, James M. Walter, Lisa F. Wolfe, Igor J. Koralnik, Swati Deshmukh*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

The diaphragm, the principle muscle of inspiration, is an under-recognized contributor to respiratory disease. Dysfunction of the diaphragm can occur secondary to lung disease, prolonged ventilation, phrenic nerve injury, neuromuscular disease, and central nervous system pathology. In light of the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there has been growing interest in the utility of ultrasound for evaluation of respiratory symptoms including lung and diaphragm sonography. Diaphragm ultrasound can be utilized to diagnose diaphragm dysfunction, assess severity of dysfunction, and monitor disease progression. This article reviews diaphragm and phrenic nerve ultrasound and describes clinical applications in the context of COVID-19.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Ultrasound in Medicine
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • diaphragm
  • phrenic
  • ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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