Dietary and urinary metabonomic factors possibly accounting for higher blood pressure of black compared with white Americans: Results of international collaborative study on macro-/micronutrients and blood pressure

Jeremiah Stamler*, Ian J. Brown, Ivan K.S. Yap, Queenie Chan, Anisha Wijeyesekera, Isabel Garcia-Perez, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Timothy M.D. Ebbels, Maria De Iorio, Joram Posma, Martha L. Daviglus, Mercedes Carnethon, Elaine Holmes, Jeremy K. Nicholson, Paul Elliott

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations

Abstract

Black compared with non-Hispanic white Americans have higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and rates of prehypertension/hypertension. Reasons for these adverse findings remain obscure. Analyses here focused on relations of foods/nutrients/urinary metabolites and higher black blood pressure for 369 black compared with 1190 non-Hispanic white Americans aged 40 to 59 years from 8 population samples. Multiple linear regression, standardized data from four 24-hour dietary recalls per person, two 24-hour urine collections, and 8 blood pressure measurements were used to quantitate the role of foods, nutrients, and metabolites in higher black blood pressure. Compared with non-Hispanic white Americans, blacks' average systolic/diastolic pressure was higher by 4.7/3.4 mm Hg (men) and 9.0/4.8 mm Hg (women). Control for higher body mass index of black women reduced excess black systolic/diastolic pressure to 6.8/3.8 mm Hg. Lesser intake of vegetables, fruits, grains, vegetable protein, glutamic acid, starch, fiber, minerals, and potassium, and higher intake of processed meats, pork, eggs, and sugar-sweetened beverages, along with higher cholesterol and higher Na/K ratio, related to in higher black blood pressure. Control for 11 nutrient and 10 non-nutrient correlates reduced higher black systolic/diastolic pressure to 2.3/2.3 mm Hg (52% and 33% reduction in men) and to 5.3/2.8 mm Hg (21% and 27% reduction in women). Control for foods/urinary metabolites had little further influence on higher black blood pressure. Less favorable multiple nutrient intake by blacks than non-Hispanic white Americans accounted, at least in part, for higher black blood pressure. Improved dietary patterns can contribute to prevention/control of more adverse black blood pressure levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1074-1080
Number of pages7
JournalHypertension
Volume62
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2013

Keywords

  • African american
  • Blood pressure
  • Eating
  • Nutrients

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

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