Dietary intake in male and female smokers, ex-smokers, and never smokers: The INTERMAP Study

A. R. Dyer*, P. Elliott, J. Stamler, Q. Chan, H. Ueshima, B. F. Zhou

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

66 Scopus citations


This report examines dietary intakes in smokers, ex-smokers, and never smokers in INTERMAP. The 4680 participants aged 40-59 years - from 17 population samples in four countries (China, Japan, UK, USA) - provided four 24-h recalls to assess nutrient intakes and two 24-h urine collections to assess excretion of urea, sodium (Na), potassium (K), etc. Compared to never smokers, current smokers generally consumed more energy from alcohol and saturated fats (SFA), less energy from vegetable protein and carbohydrates, less dietary fibre, vitamin E, beta carotene, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin, folate, vitamin B6, calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium (Mg), and K per 1000 kcal, excreted less K and urea (marker of dietary protein), had a lower ratio of polyunsaturated fat (PFA) to SFA intake, higher Keys dietary lipid score, and higher dietary and urinary Na/K. There were few differences between smokers and never smokers for total energy intake, energy from total and animal protein, monounsaturated fats, PFA, omega 3 and omega 6 PFA, dietary cholesterol, total vitamin A, retinol, vitamin D, vitamin B12, and urinary and dietary Na. Compared to ex-smokers, smokers generally consumed less energy from vegetable protein, omega 3 PFA, carbohydrates, less dietary fibre, beta carotene, vitamin E, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin, folate, vitamin B6, iron, phosphorus, Mg, had lower PFA/SFA, and excreted less urea and K. In conclusion, INTERMAP results are consistent with other reports indicating that smokers have less healthful diets than nonsmokers. Public health interventions in smokers should focus not only on helping them to quit smoking but also on improving their diets to further reduce cancer and cardiovascular disease risks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)641-654
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of human hypertension
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2003


  • Diet
  • International population study
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

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