Dietary Patterns among Asian Indians Living in the United States Have Distinct Metabolomic Profiles That Are Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk

Shilpa N. Bhupathiraju, Marta Guasch-Ferré, Meghana D. Gadgil, Christopher B. Newgard, James R. Bain, Michael J. Muehlbauer, Olga R. Ilkayeva, Denise M Scholtens, Frank B. Hu, Alka M. Kanaya, Namratha R Kandula

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Recent studies, primarily in non-Hispanic whites, suggest that dietary patterns have distinct metabolomic signatures that may influence disease risk. However, evidence in South Asians, a group with unique dietary patterns and a high prevalence of cardiometabolic risk, is lacking. Objective: We investigated the metabolomic profiles associated with 2 distinct dietary patterns among a sample of Asian Indians living in the United States. We also examined the cross-sectional associations between metabolomic profiles and cardiometabolic risk markers. Methods: We used cross-sectional data from 145 Asian Indians, aged 45-79 y, in the Metabolic Syndrome and Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) pilot study. Metabolomic profiles were measured from fasting serum samples. Usual diet was assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We used principal components analysis to derive dietary and metabolomic patterns. We used adjusted general linear regression models to examine associations between dietary patterns, individual food groups, metabolite patterns, and cardiometabolic risk markers. Results: We observed 2 major principal components or metabolite clusters, the first comprised primarily of medium- to long-chain acylcarnitines (metabolite pattern 1) and the second characterized by branched-chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids, and short-chain acylcarnitines (metabolite pattern 2). A "Western/nonvegetarian" pattern was significantly and positively associated with metabolite pattern 2 (all participants: β ± SE = 0.180 ± 0.090, P = 0.05; participants without type 2 diabetes: β ± SE = 0.323 ± 0.090, P = 0.0005). In all participants, higher scores on metabolite pattern 2 were adversely associated with measures of glycemia (fasting insulin: β ± SE = 2.91 ± 1.29, P = 0.03; 2-h insulin: β ± SE = 22.1 ± 10.3, P = 0.03; homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance: β ± SE = 0.94 ± 0.42, P = 0.03), total adiponectin (β ± SE = -1.46 ± 0.47, P = 0.002), lipids (total cholesterol: β ± SE = 7.51 ± 3.45, P = 0.03; triglycerides: β ± SE = 14.4 ± 6.67, P = 0.03), and a radiographic measure of hepatic fat (liver-to-spleen attenuation ratio: β ± SE = -0.83 ± 0.42, P = 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a "Western/nonvegetarian" dietary pattern is associated with a metabolomic profile that is related to an adverse cardiometabolic profile in Asian Indians. Public health efforts to reduce cardiometabolic disease burden in this high-risk group should focus on consuming a healthy plant-based diet.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1150-1159
Number of pages10
JournalThe Journal of nutrition
Volume148
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2018

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Metabolomics
Linear Models
Fasting
Insulin
Diet
Food
Branched Chain Amino Acids
Aromatic Amino Acids
Liver
Adiponectin
Principal Component Analysis
Focus Groups
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Insulin Resistance
Atherosclerosis
Triglycerides
Homeostasis
Spleen
Public Health
Fats

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N. ; Guasch-Ferré, Marta ; Gadgil, Meghana D. ; Newgard, Christopher B. ; Bain, James R. ; Muehlbauer, Michael J. ; Ilkayeva, Olga R. ; Scholtens, Denise M ; Hu, Frank B. ; Kanaya, Alka M. ; Kandula, Namratha R. / Dietary Patterns among Asian Indians Living in the United States Have Distinct Metabolomic Profiles That Are Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk. In: The Journal of nutrition. 2018 ; Vol. 148, No. 7. pp. 1150-1159.
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title = "Dietary Patterns among Asian Indians Living in the United States Have Distinct Metabolomic Profiles That Are Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk",
abstract = "Background: Recent studies, primarily in non-Hispanic whites, suggest that dietary patterns have distinct metabolomic signatures that may influence disease risk. However, evidence in South Asians, a group with unique dietary patterns and a high prevalence of cardiometabolic risk, is lacking. Objective: We investigated the metabolomic profiles associated with 2 distinct dietary patterns among a sample of Asian Indians living in the United States. We also examined the cross-sectional associations between metabolomic profiles and cardiometabolic risk markers. Methods: We used cross-sectional data from 145 Asian Indians, aged 45-79 y, in the Metabolic Syndrome and Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) pilot study. Metabolomic profiles were measured from fasting serum samples. Usual diet was assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We used principal components analysis to derive dietary and metabolomic patterns. We used adjusted general linear regression models to examine associations between dietary patterns, individual food groups, metabolite patterns, and cardiometabolic risk markers. Results: We observed 2 major principal components or metabolite clusters, the first comprised primarily of medium- to long-chain acylcarnitines (metabolite pattern 1) and the second characterized by branched-chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids, and short-chain acylcarnitines (metabolite pattern 2). A {"}Western/nonvegetarian{"} pattern was significantly and positively associated with metabolite pattern 2 (all participants: β ± SE = 0.180 ± 0.090, P = 0.05; participants without type 2 diabetes: β ± SE = 0.323 ± 0.090, P = 0.0005). In all participants, higher scores on metabolite pattern 2 were adversely associated with measures of glycemia (fasting insulin: β ± SE = 2.91 ± 1.29, P = 0.03; 2-h insulin: β ± SE = 22.1 ± 10.3, P = 0.03; homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance: β ± SE = 0.94 ± 0.42, P = 0.03), total adiponectin (β ± SE = -1.46 ± 0.47, P = 0.002), lipids (total cholesterol: β ± SE = 7.51 ± 3.45, P = 0.03; triglycerides: β ± SE = 14.4 ± 6.67, P = 0.03), and a radiographic measure of hepatic fat (liver-to-spleen attenuation ratio: β ± SE = -0.83 ± 0.42, P = 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a {"}Western/nonvegetarian{"} dietary pattern is associated with a metabolomic profile that is related to an adverse cardiometabolic profile in Asian Indians. Public health efforts to reduce cardiometabolic disease burden in this high-risk group should focus on consuming a healthy plant-based diet.",
author = "Bhupathiraju, {Shilpa N.} and Marta Guasch-Ferr{\'e} and Gadgil, {Meghana D.} and Newgard, {Christopher B.} and Bain, {James R.} and Muehlbauer, {Michael J.} and Ilkayeva, {Olga R.} and Scholtens, {Denise M} and Hu, {Frank B.} and Kanaya, {Alka M.} and Kandula, {Namratha R}",
year = "2018",
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doi = "10.1093/jn/nxy074",
language = "English (US)",
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Bhupathiraju, SN, Guasch-Ferré, M, Gadgil, MD, Newgard, CB, Bain, JR, Muehlbauer, MJ, Ilkayeva, OR, Scholtens, DM, Hu, FB, Kanaya, AM & Kandula, NR 2018, 'Dietary Patterns among Asian Indians Living in the United States Have Distinct Metabolomic Profiles That Are Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk', The Journal of nutrition, vol. 148, no. 7, pp. 1150-1159. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy074

Dietary Patterns among Asian Indians Living in the United States Have Distinct Metabolomic Profiles That Are Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk. / Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N.; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Gadgil, Meghana D.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Bain, James R.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Scholtens, Denise M; Hu, Frank B.; Kanaya, Alka M.; Kandula, Namratha R.

In: The Journal of nutrition, Vol. 148, No. 7, 01.07.2018, p. 1150-1159.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dietary Patterns among Asian Indians Living in the United States Have Distinct Metabolomic Profiles That Are Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk

AU - Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N.

AU - Guasch-Ferré, Marta

AU - Gadgil, Meghana D.

AU - Newgard, Christopher B.

AU - Bain, James R.

AU - Muehlbauer, Michael J.

AU - Ilkayeva, Olga R.

AU - Scholtens, Denise M

AU - Hu, Frank B.

AU - Kanaya, Alka M.

AU - Kandula, Namratha R

PY - 2018/7/1

Y1 - 2018/7/1

N2 - Background: Recent studies, primarily in non-Hispanic whites, suggest that dietary patterns have distinct metabolomic signatures that may influence disease risk. However, evidence in South Asians, a group with unique dietary patterns and a high prevalence of cardiometabolic risk, is lacking. Objective: We investigated the metabolomic profiles associated with 2 distinct dietary patterns among a sample of Asian Indians living in the United States. We also examined the cross-sectional associations between metabolomic profiles and cardiometabolic risk markers. Methods: We used cross-sectional data from 145 Asian Indians, aged 45-79 y, in the Metabolic Syndrome and Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) pilot study. Metabolomic profiles were measured from fasting serum samples. Usual diet was assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We used principal components analysis to derive dietary and metabolomic patterns. We used adjusted general linear regression models to examine associations between dietary patterns, individual food groups, metabolite patterns, and cardiometabolic risk markers. Results: We observed 2 major principal components or metabolite clusters, the first comprised primarily of medium- to long-chain acylcarnitines (metabolite pattern 1) and the second characterized by branched-chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids, and short-chain acylcarnitines (metabolite pattern 2). A "Western/nonvegetarian" pattern was significantly and positively associated with metabolite pattern 2 (all participants: β ± SE = 0.180 ± 0.090, P = 0.05; participants without type 2 diabetes: β ± SE = 0.323 ± 0.090, P = 0.0005). In all participants, higher scores on metabolite pattern 2 were adversely associated with measures of glycemia (fasting insulin: β ± SE = 2.91 ± 1.29, P = 0.03; 2-h insulin: β ± SE = 22.1 ± 10.3, P = 0.03; homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance: β ± SE = 0.94 ± 0.42, P = 0.03), total adiponectin (β ± SE = -1.46 ± 0.47, P = 0.002), lipids (total cholesterol: β ± SE = 7.51 ± 3.45, P = 0.03; triglycerides: β ± SE = 14.4 ± 6.67, P = 0.03), and a radiographic measure of hepatic fat (liver-to-spleen attenuation ratio: β ± SE = -0.83 ± 0.42, P = 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a "Western/nonvegetarian" dietary pattern is associated with a metabolomic profile that is related to an adverse cardiometabolic profile in Asian Indians. Public health efforts to reduce cardiometabolic disease burden in this high-risk group should focus on consuming a healthy plant-based diet.

AB - Background: Recent studies, primarily in non-Hispanic whites, suggest that dietary patterns have distinct metabolomic signatures that may influence disease risk. However, evidence in South Asians, a group with unique dietary patterns and a high prevalence of cardiometabolic risk, is lacking. Objective: We investigated the metabolomic profiles associated with 2 distinct dietary patterns among a sample of Asian Indians living in the United States. We also examined the cross-sectional associations between metabolomic profiles and cardiometabolic risk markers. Methods: We used cross-sectional data from 145 Asian Indians, aged 45-79 y, in the Metabolic Syndrome and Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) pilot study. Metabolomic profiles were measured from fasting serum samples. Usual diet was assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We used principal components analysis to derive dietary and metabolomic patterns. We used adjusted general linear regression models to examine associations between dietary patterns, individual food groups, metabolite patterns, and cardiometabolic risk markers. Results: We observed 2 major principal components or metabolite clusters, the first comprised primarily of medium- to long-chain acylcarnitines (metabolite pattern 1) and the second characterized by branched-chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids, and short-chain acylcarnitines (metabolite pattern 2). A "Western/nonvegetarian" pattern was significantly and positively associated with metabolite pattern 2 (all participants: β ± SE = 0.180 ± 0.090, P = 0.05; participants without type 2 diabetes: β ± SE = 0.323 ± 0.090, P = 0.0005). In all participants, higher scores on metabolite pattern 2 were adversely associated with measures of glycemia (fasting insulin: β ± SE = 2.91 ± 1.29, P = 0.03; 2-h insulin: β ± SE = 22.1 ± 10.3, P = 0.03; homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance: β ± SE = 0.94 ± 0.42, P = 0.03), total adiponectin (β ± SE = -1.46 ± 0.47, P = 0.002), lipids (total cholesterol: β ± SE = 7.51 ± 3.45, P = 0.03; triglycerides: β ± SE = 14.4 ± 6.67, P = 0.03), and a radiographic measure of hepatic fat (liver-to-spleen attenuation ratio: β ± SE = -0.83 ± 0.42, P = 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a "Western/nonvegetarian" dietary pattern is associated with a metabolomic profile that is related to an adverse cardiometabolic profile in Asian Indians. Public health efforts to reduce cardiometabolic disease burden in this high-risk group should focus on consuming a healthy plant-based diet.

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