Differential parenting based on gender and birth order status was examined as an explanation for the achievement differences between African American males and females. In a sample of 796 African American adolescents from the MADICS study, girls were found to have much higher GPAs and test scores compared with boys. Girls reported receiving more monitoring, communication, and rule enforcement, but less autonomy in decision making than later-born boys. Mothers also reported higher expectations for girls than boys. A significant percent of the GPA and test score gap was accounted for by the parenting differences in both married and single mother-headed households. It was concluded that reducing differential parenting could help narrow gender differences in achievement among African American adolescents.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cultural Studies
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
- Behavioral Neuroscience