Extracellular NAD induces the ATP-independent activation of the ionotropic P2X7 purinergic receptor (P2X7R) in murine T lymphocytes via a novel covalent pathway involving ADP-ribosylation of arginine residues on the P2X7R ectodomain. This modification is catalyzed by ART2.2, a GPI-anchored ADP-ribosyltransferase (ART) that is constitutively expressed in murine T cells. We previously reported that ART2.1, a related ecto-ART, is up-regulated in inflammatory murine macrophages that constitutively express P2X7R. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that extracellular NAD acts via ART2.1 to regulate P2X7R function in murine macrophages. Coexpression of the cloned murine P2X7R with ART2.1 or ART2.2 in HEK293 cells verified that P2X7R is an equivalent substrate for ADP-ribosylation by either ART2.1 or ART2.2. However, in contrast with T cells, the stimulation of macrophages or HEK293 cells with NAD alone did not activate the P2X7R. Rather, NAD potentiated ATP-dependent P2X7R activation as indicated by a left shift in the ATP dose-response relationship. Thus, extracellular NAD regulates the P2X7R in both macrophages and T cells but via distinct mechanisms. Although ADP-ribosylation is sufficient to gate a P2X7R channel opening in T cells, this P2X7R modification in macrophages does not gate the channel but decreases the threshold for gating in response to ATP binding. These findings indicate that extracellular NAD and ATP can act synergistically to regulate P2X7R signaling in murine macrophages and also suggest that the cellular context in which P2X7R signaling occurs differs between myeloid and lymphoid leukocytes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy