Objectives: To assess whether recurrent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and newly diagnosed GDM share similar risk factors. Methods: The study recruited a cohort of 10,151 multipara women with singleton pregnancy who delivered between 2016 and 2019 in Beijing, China. The prevalence of recurrent GDM and associated risk factors were analyzed between women with and without prior GDM history. Results: Eight hundred and seventy-five (8.6%) multipara women had a diagnosis of GDM during previous pregnancies. The prevalence of GDM and pre-gestational diabetes mellitus were 48.34% (423/875) and 7.89% (69/875) if the women were diagnosed with GDM during previous pregnancies, as compared to 16.00% (1484/9276) and 0.50% (46/9276) if the women were never diagnosed with GDM before. In women without a history of GDM, a variety of factors including older maternal age, higher pre-pregnancy body mass index (PPBMI), prolonged interval between the two pregnancies, higher early pregnancy weight gain, family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), maternal low birth weight, and higher early pregnancy glycemic and lipid indexes were generally associated with an increased risk of GDM at subsequent pregnancy. In women with a history of GDM, higher PPBMI, higher fasting glucose level and maternal birthweight ≥4000 g were independent risk factors for recurrent GDM. Conclusions: GDM reoccurred in nearly half of women with a history of GDM. Risk factors for recurrent GDM and newly diagnosed GDM were different. Identifying additional factors for GDM recurrence can help guide clinical management for future pregnancies to prevent GDM recurrence.
- Body mass index
- Fasting glucose
- Gestational diabetes mellitus
- Risk factor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism