We show an experimental approach for directly observing the condensation of polynucleotides and their electrolyte counterions at a liquid/solid interface. X-ray standing waves (XSW) generated by Bragg diffraction from a d = 20 nm Si/Mo multilayer substrate are used to measure the distinct distribution profiles of the polyanions and simple cations along the surface normal direction with subnanometer resolution. The ID spatial sensitivity of this approach is enhanced by observing the XSW induced fluorescence modulations over multiple orders of Bragg peaks. We study the interesting divalent cation driven adsorption of anionic polynucleotides to anionic surfaces by exposing a hydroxyl-terminated silica surface to an aqueous solution with ZnCl2 and mercurated poly-uridylic acid (a synthetic RNA molecule). The in situ long-period XSW measurements are used to follow the evolution of both the Zn and Hg distribution profiles during the adsorption process. The conditions and physical mechanisms that govern the observed divalent cation adsorption and subsequent polynucleotide adsorption to an anionic surface are explained by a thermodynamic model that incorporates nonlinear electrostatic effects.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry