Direct X-Ray Scattering Measurement of Internal Stresses and Strains in Loaded Bones

Stuart R. Stock*, Jonathan D. Almer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


High-energy X-ray scattering offers a unique, non-destructive method for quantifying stress in the interior of bones during in-situ loading. The mineral phase and collagen phase of the composite material bone can be studied independently using wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS or diffraction) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), respectively. In this chapter, X-ray scattering procedures and stress determinations are briefly reviewed, after which the methods used for the studies are summarized and data from several loading experiments presented. Herein, two main results are featured: (i) an independent determination of Young's modulus in the mineral phase and in the collagen phase of bone via in-situ loading, and comparison with the composite modulus derived from an attached strain gage; and (ii) stress gradients studied in an inhomogeneously loaded rat tibia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHandbook of Biomineralization
Subtitle of host publicationBiological Aspects and Structure Formation
PublisherWiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA
Number of pages11
ISBN (Print)9783527316410
StatePublished - Mar 20 2008


  • Bone
  • Strain
  • Stress
  • Synchrotron radiation
  • X-ray scattering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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