Direction of foot force for pushes against a fixed pedal: Role of effort level

Kreg G. Gruben, Lynn M. Rogers, Matthew W. Schmidt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Control of the force exerted by the foot on the ground is critical to human locomotion. During running on a treadmill and pushing against a fixed pedal, humans increased foot force in a linear manner in sagittal plane force space. However, for pushes against a moving pedal, force output was linear for some participants but slightly curved for others. A primary difference between the static and dynamic pedaling studies was that the dynamic study required participants to push with varying peak effort levels, whereas a constant peak effort level was used for the fixed pedal pushes. The present study evaluated the possibility that force direction varied with level of effort. Seated humans pushed against a fixed pedal to a series of force magnitude targets. The force direction varied systematically with effort level consistent with the force path curvature observed for dynamic pedaling.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)229-241
Number of pages13
JournalMotor Control
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 1 2003


  • Balance
  • Direction
  • Foot
  • Force
  • Leg
  • Motor control
  • Pedal
  • Posture

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Physiology (medical)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Direction of foot force for pushes against a fixed pedal: Role of effort level'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this