The solid-state properties of organic radicals depend on radical-radical interactions that are influenced by the superstructure of the crystalline phase. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of a substituted tetracationic cyclophane, cyclobis(paraquat-p-1,4-dimethoxyphenylene), which associates in its bisradical dicationic redox state with the methyl viologen radical cation (MV•+) to give a 1:1 inclusion complex. The (super)structures of the reduced cyclophane and this 1:1 complex in the solid state deviate from the analogous (super)structures observed for the reduced state of cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) and that of its trisradical tricationic complex. Titration experiments reveal that the methoxy substituents on the p-phenylene linkers do not influence binding of the cyclophane toward small neutral guests - such as dimethoxybenzene and tetrathiafulvalene - whereas binding of larger radical cationic guests such as MV•+ by the reduced cyclophane decreases 10-fold. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the solid-state superstructure of the 1:1 complex constitutes a discrete entity with weak intermolecular orbital overlap between neighboring complexes. Transient nutation EPR experiments and DFT calculations confirm that the complex has a doublet spin configuration in the ground state as a result of the strong orbital overlap, while the quartet-state spin configuration is higher in energy and inaccessible at ambient temperature. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements reveal that the trisradical tricationic complexes interact antiferromagnetically and form a one-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain along the a-axis of the crystal. These results offer insights into the design and synthesis of organic magnetic materials based on host-guest complexes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry