Discussion of "On the free energy of formation of TiC and Al4C3"

M. E. Fine*, J. G. Conley

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


Several years ago, Banerji and Reif[1] reported some very interesting studies on a process to react Ti and C in molten Al to form particles of TiC. The process was used to prepare a master alloy with a fine dispersion of TiC to inoculate Al for grain refinement. Approximately 2 wt pct of preheated graphite particles were stirred into the Al-5 to 10 pct Ti melts. The authors explained that the melts needed to be superheated above 1000 °C to avoid the undesirable formation of A14C3 and Ti3AlC at the TiC/melt interface. Their explanation for this phenomenon was based on thermodynamics. They observed that the standard free energy of formation curves for AI4C3 and TiC cross near 1175 °C, with A14C3 having the lower free energy of formation below this temperature. There are several aspects of this work which merit further discussion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2609-2610
Number of pages2
JournalMetallurgical Transactions A
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 1990

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Discussion of "On the free energy of formation of TiC and Al4C3"'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this