Disease Development and Outcomes

Mary Mahieu*, Dafna Gladman, Rosalind Ramsey-Goldman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease of variable course and prognosis. Clinical manifestations of SLE are reviewed in this chapter, with an emphasis on the most common types of disease damage related to SLE itself and other factors. Tools to assess lupus outcomes, including disease activity, disease damage, and patient-reported outcomes, are increasingly used in clinical practice and clinical trials to improve care. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances have led to improved survival in SLE patients over the last 50. years, but lupus patients still have a higher mortality than the general population. Risk factors for mortality, including organ-specific SLE manifestations, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, are discussed. A growing body of treatment guidelines and quality indicators provide a clinical framework to mitigate disease activity and damage and improve patient outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationSystemic Lupus Erythematosus
Subtitle of host publicationBasic, Applied and Clinical Aspects
PublisherElsevier Inc
Number of pages7
ISBN (Electronic)9780128020098
ISBN (Print)9780128019177
StatePublished - 2016


  • Causes of death
  • Clinical manifestations
  • Disease activity
  • Disease damage
  • Mortality
  • Patient-reported outcomes
  • Quality indicators
  • Treatment guidelines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine
  • General Immunology and Microbiology


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