Disparities in COVID-19 Monoclonal Antibody Delivery: a Retrospective Cohort Study

En Ling Wu*, Rebecca N. Kumar, W. Justin Moore, Gavin T. Hall, Indre Vysniauskaite, Kwang Youn A. Kim, Michael P. Angarone, Valentina Stosor, Michael G Ison, Adam Frink Bba, Chad J. Achenbach, Khalilah L. Gates*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Background: Disparities in access to anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies have not been well characterized. Objective: We sought to explore the impact of race/ethnicity as a social construct on monoclonal antibody delivery. Design/Patients: Following implementation of a centralized infusion program at a large academic healthcare system, we reviewed a random sample of high-risk ambulatory adult patients with COVID-19 referred for monoclonal antibody therapy. Main Measures: We examined the relationship between treatment delivery, race/ethnicity, and other demographics using descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression, and spatial analysis. Key Results: There was no significant difference in racial composition between patients who did (n = 25) and patients who did not (n = 378) decline treatment (p = 0.638). Of patients who did not decline treatment, 64.8% identified as White, 14.8% as Hispanic/Latinx, and 11.1% as Black. Only 44.6% of Hispanic/Latinx and 31.0% of Black patients received treatment compared to 64.1% of White patients (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25–0.81, p = 0.008, and OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.12–0.50, p < 0.001, respectively). In multivariable analysis including age, race, insurance status, non-English primary language, county Social Vulnerability Index, illness severity, and total number of comorbidities, associations between receiving treatment and Hispanic/Latinx or Black race were no longer statistically significant (AOR 1.32, 95% CI 0.69–2.53, p = 0.400, and AOR 1.34, 95% CI 0.64–2.80, p = 0.439, respectively). However, patients who were uninsured or whose primary language was not English were less likely to receive treatment (AOR 0.16, 95% CI 0.03–0.88, p = 0.035, and AOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15–0.90, p = 0.028, respectively). Spatial analysis suggested decreased monoclonal antibody delivery to Cook County patients residing in socially vulnerable communities. Conclusions: High-risk ambulatory patients with COVID-19 who identified as Hispanic/Latinx or Black were less likely to receive monoclonal antibody therapy in univariate analysis, a finding not explained by patient refusal. Multivariable and spatial analyses suggested insurance status, language, and social vulnerability contributed to racial disparities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2505-2513
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of general internal medicine
Issue number10
StatePublished - Aug 2022


  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Social Vulnerability Index
  • monoclonal antibody
  • racial/ethnic disparities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


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