Disparities in COVID-19 Monoclonal Antibody Delivery: a Retrospective Cohort Study

En Ling Wu*, Rebecca N. Kumar, W. Justin Moore, Gavin T. Hall, Indre Vysniauskaite, Kwang Youn A. Kim, Michael P. Angarone, Valentina Stosor, Michael G. Ison, Adam Frink Bba, Chad J. Achenbach, Khalilah L. Gates

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Disparities in access to anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies have not been well characterized. Objective: We sought to explore the impact of race/ethnicity as a social construct on monoclonal antibody delivery. Design/Patients: Following implementation of a centralized infusion program at a large academic healthcare system, we reviewed a random sample of high-risk ambulatory adult patients with COVID-19 referred for monoclonal antibody therapy. Main Measures: We examined the relationship between treatment delivery, race/ethnicity, and other demographics using descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression, and spatial analysis. Key Results: There was no significant difference in racial composition between patients who did (n = 25) and patients who did not (n = 378) decline treatment (p = 0.638). Of patients who did not decline treatment, 64.8% identified as White, 14.8% as Hispanic/Latinx, and 11.1% as Black. Only 44.6% of Hispanic/Latinx and 31.0% of Black patients received treatment compared to 64.1% of White patients (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25–0.81, p = 0.008, and OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.12–0.50, p < 0.001, respectively). In multivariable analysis including age, race, insurance status, non-English primary language, county Social Vulnerability Index, illness severity, and total number of comorbidities, associations between receiving treatment and Hispanic/Latinx or Black race were no longer statistically significant (AOR 1.32, 95% CI 0.69–2.53, p = 0.400, and AOR 1.34, 95% CI 0.64–2.80, p = 0.439, respectively). However, patients who were uninsured or whose primary language was not English were less likely to receive treatment (AOR 0.16, 95% CI 0.03–0.88, p = 0.035, and AOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15–0.90, p = 0.028, respectively). Spatial analysis suggested decreased monoclonal antibody delivery to Cook County patients residing in socially vulnerable communities. Conclusions: High-risk ambulatory patients with COVID-19 who identified as Hispanic/Latinx or Black were less likely to receive monoclonal antibody therapy in univariate analysis, a finding not explained by patient refusal. Multivariable and spatial analyses suggested insurance status, language, and social vulnerability contributed to racial disparities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of general internal medicine
StateAccepted/In press - 2022


  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Social Vulnerability Index
  • monoclonal antibody
  • racial/ethnic disparities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Disparities in COVID-19 Monoclonal Antibody Delivery: a Retrospective Cohort Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this