Disparities in the diagnostic evaluation of microhematuriaand implications for the detection of urologic malignancy

Richard S. Matulewicz*, Alysen L. Demzik, John Oliver DeLancey, Oana Popescu, Danil V. Makarov, Joshua J. Meeks

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Introduction: Disparities in survival for bladder and kidney cancer among the genders and patients with varying insurance coverage have been identified. Microhematuria (MH), a potential early clinical sign of genitourinary malignancy, should prompt a standardized diagnostic evaluation. However, many patients do not complete a full evaluation and may be at risk of a missed or delayed identification of genitourinary pathology. Methods: Patients 35 and older with a new diagnosis of MH between 2007 and 2015 were retrospectively identified at a large health system. Our primary outcome of interest was completion of cystoscopy and imaging. Regression modeling was used to assess associations between gender and insurance status with completion of a MH evaluation, adjusted for clinical factors, urinalysis data, and patient demographics. Results: Of 15,161 patients with MH, only 1,273 patients (8.4%) completed upper tract imaging and a cystoscopy; 899 (5.9%) within 1 year. Median time to imaging was 75days and 68.5days for cystoscopy. Of those with an incomplete evaluation, 23.7% underwent cystoscopy and 76.3% underwent imaging. Male gender, private insurance, and increased MH severity on UA were associated with a complete evaluation. More patients who completed an evaluation were diagnosed with bladder (4.8% vs. 0.3%) and kidney cancer (3.1% vs. 0.4%) when compared to those who did not. Conclusion: Few patients complete a timely evaluation of MH. Women and underinsured patients are disproportionately less likely to complete a work-up for microhematuria and this may have downstream implications for diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)300.e1-300.e7
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2019


  • Bladder cancer
  • Cystoscopy
  • Hematuria
  • Kidney cancer
  • Microhematuria

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology
  • Oncology


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