Dispersive equations for high resolution imaging and lattice fringe artifacts

L. D. Marks*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


The imaging equations for high resolution electron microscopy are analysed using an approach based upon expanding the electron wave as positionally modulated diffraction beams. A high-order semi-linear approximation is derived which includes the leading non-linear effects of a reciprocal space integration and can be conveniently expressed in real space. This allows a direct visualisation of imaging effects in real space using a conventional wave dispersion approach. Based on this, the primary sources of lattice fringe artifacts and errors in the 2 1 2D technique are briefly discussed, and an experimental technique for guarding against them employing dark field imaging is described.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)237-242
Number of pages6
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1983

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation


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