Divergent influences of cardiovascular disease risk factor domains on cognition and gray and white matter morphology

Mitzi M. Gonzales, Olusola Ajilore, Rebecca C. Charlton, Jamie Cohen, Shaolin Yang, Erica Sieg, Dulal K. Bhaumik, Anand Kumar, Melissa Lamar*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: Hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity are associated with preclinical alterations in cognition and brain structure; however, this often comes from studies of comprehensive risk scores or single isolated factors. We examined associations of empirically derived cardiovascular disease risk factor domains with cognition and brain structure. Methods: A total of 124 adults (age, 59.8 [13.1] years; 41% African American; 50% women) underwent neuropsychological and cardiovascular assessments and structural magnetic resonance imaging. Principal component analysis of nine cardiovascular disease risk factors resulted in a four-component solution representing 1, cholesterol; 2, glucose dysregulation; 3, metabolic dysregulation; and 4, blood pressure. Separate linear regression models for learning, memory, executive functioning, and attention/information processing were performed, with all components entered at once, adjusting for age, sex, and education. MRI analyses included whole-brain cortical thickness and tract-based fractional anisotropy adjusted for age and sex. Results: Higher blood pressure was associated with poorer learning (B =-0.19; p =.019), memory (B =-0.22; p =.005), and executive functioning performance (B =-0.14; p =.031), and lower cortical thickness within the right lateral occipital lobe. Elevated glucose dysregulation was associated with poorer attention/information processing performance (B =-0.21; p =.006) and lower fractional anisotropy in the right inferior and bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculi. Cholesterol was associated with higher cortical thickness within left caudal middle frontal cortex. Metabolic dysfunction was positively associated with right superior parietal lobe, left inferior parietal lobe, and left precuneus cortical thickness. Conclusions: Cardiovascular domains were associated with distinct cognitive, gray, and white matter alterations and distinct age groups. Future longitudinal studies may assist in identifying vulnerability profiles that may be most important for individuals with multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)541-548
Number of pages8
JournalPsychosomatic medicine
Volume79
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

Fingerprint

Parietal Lobe
Cognition
Cardiovascular Diseases
Anisotropy
Automatic Data Processing
Linear Models
Brain
Cholesterol
Learning
Hypertension
Glucose
Occipital Lobe
Sex Education
Frontal Lobe
Dyslipidemias
Principal Component Analysis
African Americans
Longitudinal Studies
Age Groups
Obesity

Keywords

  • Blood pressure
  • Cardiovascular disease risk factors
  • Cortical thickness
  • Diffusion tensor imaging
  • Glucose
  • Metabolic
  • White matter integrity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Gonzales, Mitzi M. ; Ajilore, Olusola ; Charlton, Rebecca C. ; Cohen, Jamie ; Yang, Shaolin ; Sieg, Erica ; Bhaumik, Dulal K. ; Kumar, Anand ; Lamar, Melissa. / Divergent influences of cardiovascular disease risk factor domains on cognition and gray and white matter morphology. In: Psychosomatic medicine. 2017 ; Vol. 79, No. 5. pp. 541-548.
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Gonzales, MM, Ajilore, O, Charlton, RC, Cohen, J, Yang, S, Sieg, E, Bhaumik, DK, Kumar, A & Lamar, M 2017, 'Divergent influences of cardiovascular disease risk factor domains on cognition and gray and white matter morphology', Psychosomatic medicine, vol. 79, no. 5, pp. 541-548. https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000448

Divergent influences of cardiovascular disease risk factor domains on cognition and gray and white matter morphology. / Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Ajilore, Olusola; Charlton, Rebecca C.; Cohen, Jamie; Yang, Shaolin; Sieg, Erica; Bhaumik, Dulal K.; Kumar, Anand; Lamar, Melissa.

In: Psychosomatic medicine, Vol. 79, No. 5, 01.01.2017, p. 541-548.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Divergent influences of cardiovascular disease risk factor domains on cognition and gray and white matter morphology

AU - Gonzales, Mitzi M.

AU - Ajilore, Olusola

AU - Charlton, Rebecca C.

AU - Cohen, Jamie

AU - Yang, Shaolin

AU - Sieg, Erica

AU - Bhaumik, Dulal K.

AU - Kumar, Anand

AU - Lamar, Melissa

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N2 - Objective: Hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity are associated with preclinical alterations in cognition and brain structure; however, this often comes from studies of comprehensive risk scores or single isolated factors. We examined associations of empirically derived cardiovascular disease risk factor domains with cognition and brain structure. Methods: A total of 124 adults (age, 59.8 [13.1] years; 41% African American; 50% women) underwent neuropsychological and cardiovascular assessments and structural magnetic resonance imaging. Principal component analysis of nine cardiovascular disease risk factors resulted in a four-component solution representing 1, cholesterol; 2, glucose dysregulation; 3, metabolic dysregulation; and 4, blood pressure. Separate linear regression models for learning, memory, executive functioning, and attention/information processing were performed, with all components entered at once, adjusting for age, sex, and education. MRI analyses included whole-brain cortical thickness and tract-based fractional anisotropy adjusted for age and sex. Results: Higher blood pressure was associated with poorer learning (B =-0.19; p =.019), memory (B =-0.22; p =.005), and executive functioning performance (B =-0.14; p =.031), and lower cortical thickness within the right lateral occipital lobe. Elevated glucose dysregulation was associated with poorer attention/information processing performance (B =-0.21; p =.006) and lower fractional anisotropy in the right inferior and bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculi. Cholesterol was associated with higher cortical thickness within left caudal middle frontal cortex. Metabolic dysfunction was positively associated with right superior parietal lobe, left inferior parietal lobe, and left precuneus cortical thickness. Conclusions: Cardiovascular domains were associated with distinct cognitive, gray, and white matter alterations and distinct age groups. Future longitudinal studies may assist in identifying vulnerability profiles that may be most important for individuals with multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors.

AB - Objective: Hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity are associated with preclinical alterations in cognition and brain structure; however, this often comes from studies of comprehensive risk scores or single isolated factors. We examined associations of empirically derived cardiovascular disease risk factor domains with cognition and brain structure. Methods: A total of 124 adults (age, 59.8 [13.1] years; 41% African American; 50% women) underwent neuropsychological and cardiovascular assessments and structural magnetic resonance imaging. Principal component analysis of nine cardiovascular disease risk factors resulted in a four-component solution representing 1, cholesterol; 2, glucose dysregulation; 3, metabolic dysregulation; and 4, blood pressure. Separate linear regression models for learning, memory, executive functioning, and attention/information processing were performed, with all components entered at once, adjusting for age, sex, and education. MRI analyses included whole-brain cortical thickness and tract-based fractional anisotropy adjusted for age and sex. Results: Higher blood pressure was associated with poorer learning (B =-0.19; p =.019), memory (B =-0.22; p =.005), and executive functioning performance (B =-0.14; p =.031), and lower cortical thickness within the right lateral occipital lobe. Elevated glucose dysregulation was associated with poorer attention/information processing performance (B =-0.21; p =.006) and lower fractional anisotropy in the right inferior and bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculi. Cholesterol was associated with higher cortical thickness within left caudal middle frontal cortex. Metabolic dysfunction was positively associated with right superior parietal lobe, left inferior parietal lobe, and left precuneus cortical thickness. Conclusions: Cardiovascular domains were associated with distinct cognitive, gray, and white matter alterations and distinct age groups. Future longitudinal studies may assist in identifying vulnerability profiles that may be most important for individuals with multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors.

KW - Blood pressure

KW - Cardiovascular disease risk factors

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KW - Diffusion tensor imaging

KW - Glucose

KW - Metabolic

KW - White matter integrity

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