Bivalent DNA conjugates of β-galactosidase (βGal), having pairs of oligonucleotides positioned closely on opposing faces of the protein, have been synthesized and characterized. These structures, due to their directional bonding characteristics, allow for the programmable access of one-dimensional protein materials. When conjugates functionalized with complementary oligonucleotides are combined under conditions that support DNA hybridization, periodic wire-type superstructures consisting of aligned proteins form. These structures have been characterized by gel electrophoresis, cryo-transmission electron microscopy, and negative-stain transmission electron microscopy. Significantly, melting experiments of complementary building blocks display narrowed and elevated melting transitions compared to the free duplex DNA, further supporting the formation of the designed binding mode, and unambiguously characterizing their association as DNA-mediated. These novel structures illustrate, for the first time, that directional DNA bonding can be realized with only a pair of DNA modifications, which will allow one to engineer directional interactions and realize new classes of superstructures not possible simply through shape control or isotropically functionalized materials.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry