Does easily learned mean easily remembered? it depends on your beliefs about intelligence

David B. Miele, Bridgid Finn, Daniel C Molden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

53 Scopus citations

Abstract

Because numerous studies have shown that feelings of encoding fluency are positively correlated with judgments of learning, a single dominant heuristic, easily learned = easily remembered (ELER), has been posited to explain how people interpret encoding fluency when assessing their own memory. However, the inferences people draw from feelings of encoding fluency may vary with their beliefs about why information is easy or effortful to encode. We conducted two experiments in which participants studied word lists and then predicted their future recall of those items. Results revealed that subjects who viewed intelligence as fixed, and who tended to interpret effortful encoding as indicating that they had reached the limits of their ability, used the ELER heuristic to make judgments of learning. However, subjects who viewed intelligence as malleable, and who tended to interpret effortful encoding as indicating greater engagement in learning, did not use the ELER heuristic and at times predicted greater memory for items that they found more effortful to learn.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)320-324
Number of pages5
JournalPsychological Science
Volume22
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2011

Keywords

  • fluency
  • heuristics
  • judgment
  • learning
  • memory
  • metacognition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)

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