Does seasonal variation affect hallucinations in PD? A longitudinal study

Christopher G. Goetz*, John Michael Li, Joanne Wuu, Sue Leurgans

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


The objective of this study was to examine the chronobiology of visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients to test whether hallucinations are more severe during darker months (winter) than summer months. We extracted longitudinal data on the UPDRS Thought Disorder (TD) score, taken as part of regular patient management on sequential visits through a 1-year cycle in hallucinating PD patients. To reduce the confounding effects of medication adjustments, analysis was restricted to patients with a baseline evaluation that did not involve a medication change. The primary outcome was the seasonal change in hallucination severity, defined as a change in TD score or neuroleptic use. Using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, we compared the exacerbation of hallucination by season, focusing on winter (December through February) versus summer (June through August). A total of 51 hallucinating patients met entry criteria, and their longitudinal data were analyzed. There was no difference in hallucination severity with changing season; the level of wintertime exacerbation was no greater than summertime exacerbation (P = 0.42). Although hallucinations frequently develop in dimmed environments and evening hours, the darkness of wintertime does not exacerbate hallucinations in PD subjects on stable medications. Because we found no evidence of seasonal variations, we cannot recommend phototherapy or other strategies affecting chronobiological systems as research priorities to treat PD hallucinations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)863-865
Number of pages3
JournalMovement Disorders
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2006


  • Chronobiology
  • Hallucinations
  • Parkinson's disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology


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