Therapeutic donor insemination (TDI), also known as artificial insemination by donor, is one of the oldest forms of male infertility treatment. With the advent of assisted reproductive technologies and in vitro fertilization techniques over the past few decades, the use of TDI in male infertility treatment has decreased dramatically. Knowledge of its use, indications, efficacy, and related psychosocial issues has also declined among urologists treating male infertility. Despite the change in popularity of the procedure, though, TDI remains an appropriate therapeutic option for certain cases of male infertility, particularly in patients who have failed multiple cycles of in vitro fertilization/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection or in men with no available sperm even after attempted microdissection testicular sperm extraction. Further consideration and research should be focused on the potential uses and indications for TDI.
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