Objectives. To compare the efficacy of single-dose oral ciprofloxacin with intravenous cefazolin as a prophylactic agent in patients undergoing outpatient endourologic surgery. Methods. One hundred patients were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized study to receive either ciprofloxacin (500 mg) or cefazolin (1 g) before surgery. A postoperative clinical evaluation and urine cultures were performed 5 to 10 days after surgery. Patients undergoing ureteral stent insertion or exchange, ureteroscopy, bladder biopsy, retrograde pyelography, collagen injection, and internal urethrotomy were included. Results. Postoperative urinary tract infection occurred in 7 (9.1%) of 77 patients, including 3 (8.1%) of 37 and 4 (10.0%) of 40 of those who received ciprofloxacin and cefazolin, respectively (P = 0.77). There were no episodes of sepsis, and no patient with infection required hospitalization. The total cost associated with the administration of prophylactic antibiotics in the study population was $3657 less in those 50 patients who received ciprofloxacin than in the 50 patients who received cefazolin. Conclusions. A single oral dose of ciprofloxacin in patients undergoing outpatient endourologic surgery was equally effective as cefazolin in preventing postoperative urinary tract infection, but was associated with markedly lower overall costs.
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