Drug Ingestion During Pregnancy: Infrequent Exposure in a Contemporary United States Sample

Joe Leigh Simpson, Arthur Morey, Boyd E. Metzger, Zane Brown, Margot Van Allen, Sherman Elias, James L. Mills, Jerome H. Aarons, Robert H. Knopp, Lewis B. Holmes, Lois Jovanovic-Peterson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Drug ingestion in a cohort of United States women proved consistently lower than in prior United States populations. Participating were 342 insulin-dependent diabetic and 387 control subjects who were enrolled before conception (76%) or no later than 21 days after conception (24%). Drug exposures were then recorded at entry and periodically throughout organogenesis (gestational weeks 6, 8,10). During gestational weeks 1 to 10, approximately two thirds of the subjects were exposed to no agent other than oral iron, oral vitamins, or insulin (diabetic subjects). The mean exposures in gestational weeks 1 to 10 were 0.72 ± 1.05 (SD) for diabetic women and 0.54 ± 0.96 for control subjects; throughout pregnancy, the mean exposures were 1.26 ± 1.66 and 1.58 ± 1.78, respectively. The low exposure frequency in this contemporary United States population is highly encouraging. However, it follows that collaborative cohort efforts may be necessary in order to assess teratogenicity of drugs because relatively few women are now exposed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)244-251
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican journal of perinatology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1989

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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