Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of Breast: From Molecular Etiology to Therapeutic Management

Shelby Lynn Hophan, Olena Odnokoz, Huiping Liu, Yuan Luo, Seema Khan, William Gradishar, Zhuan Zhou, Sunil Badve, Mylin A. Torres, Yong Wan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) makes up a majority of noninvasive breast cancer cases. DCIS is a neoplastic proliferation of epithelial cells within the ductal structure of the breast. Currently, there is little known about the progression of DCIS to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), or the molecular etiology behind each DCIS lesion or grade. The DCIS lesions can be heterogeneous in morphology, genetics, cellular biology, and clinical behavior, posing challenges to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which approximately half of all DCIS lesions progress to an invasive status. New strategies that pinpoint molecular mechanisms are necessary to overcome this gap in understanding, which is a barrier to more targeted therapy. In this review, we will discuss the etiological factors associated with DCIS, as well as the complexity of each nuclear grade lesion. Moreover, we will discuss the possible molecular features that lead to progression of DCIS to IDC. We will highlight current therapeutic management and areas for improvement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberbqac027
JournalEndocrinology (United States)
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2022


  • breast cancer
  • ductal carcinoma in situ
  • invasive breast cancer
  • invasive ductal carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology


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