Effective methods of serial epithelial sampling to measure breast-specific biomarkers will aid the rapid evaluation of new preventive interventions. We report here a proof-of-principle phase 2 study to assess the utility of ductal lavage (DL) to measure biomarkers of tamoxifen action. We enrolled women with a 5-year breast cancer risk estimate >1.6% or the unaffected breast of women with T1a or T1b breast cancer. After entry DL, participants chose tamoxifen or observation and underwent repeat DL 6 months later. Samples were processed for cytology and immunohistochemistry for estrogen receptor α, Ki-67, and cyclooxygenase-2. Of 182 women recruited, 115 (63%) underwent entry and repeat DL; 85 (47%) had sufficient cells for analysis from ≥1 duct at both time points; in 78 (43%), cells were sufficient from ≥1 matched ducts. Forty-six women chose observation and 39 chose tamoxifen. We observed greater reductions in the tamoxifen group than in the observation group for Ki-67 (adjusted P = 0.03) and estrogen receptor α (adjusted P = 0.07), but not in cyclooxygenase-2 (adjusted P = 0.4) labeling. Cytologic findings showed a trend toward improvement in the tamoxifen group compared with the observation group. Interobserver variability for cytologic diagnosis between two observers showed good agreement (κ = 0.44). Using DL, we observed the expected changes in tamoxifen-related biomarkers; however, poor reproducibility of biomarkers in the observation group, the 53% attrition rate of subjects from recruitment to biomarker analyses, and the expense of DL are significant barriers to the use of this procedure for biomarker assessment over time.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research