Each at its own pace: Third-party dependency and centralization around the world

Rashna Kumar, Sana Asif, Elise Lee, Fabián E. Bustamante

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We describe the results of a large-scale study of third-party dependencies around the world based on regional top-500 popular websites accessed from vantage points in 50 countries, together covering all inhabited continents. This broad perspective shows that dependencies on a third-party DNS, CDN or CA provider vary widely around the world. The critical dependencies of websites - where the site depends on a single third-party provider - are equally spread. Even more concerning, these differences persist a year later with increasing dependencies, particularly for DNS and CDNs. We briefly explore various factors that may help explain the differences and similarities in degrees of third-party dependency across countries, including economic conditions, Internet development, economic trading partners, categories, home countries, and traffic skewness of the country's top-500 sites.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)43-44
Number of pages2
JournalPerformance Evaluation Review
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jun 19 2023


  • CA
  • CDN
  • centralization
  • dns
  • third-party dependency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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