Early and late acute kidney injury: Temporal profile in the critically ill pediatric patient

Amanda Ruth*, Rajit K. Basu, Scott Gillespie, Catherine Morgan, Joshua Zaritsky, David T. Selewski, Ayse Akcan Arikan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Background: Increasing AKI diagnosis precision to refine the understanding of associated epidemiology and outcomes is a focus of recent critical care nephrology research. Timing of onset of acute kidney injury (AKI) during pediatric critical illness and impact on outcomes has not been fully explored. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of the Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney Injury, Renal Angina and Epidemiology (AWARE) database. AKI was defined as per Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Early AKI was defined as diagnosed at ≤48 h after intensive care unit (ICU) admission, with any diagnosis >48 h denoted as late AKI. Transient AKI was defined as return to baseline serum creatinine ≤48 h of onset, and those without recovery fell into the persistent category. A second incidence of AKI ≥48 h after recovery was denoted as recurrent. Patients were subsequently sorted into distinct phenotypes as early-transient, late-transient, early-persistent, late-persistent and recurrent. Primary outcome was major adverse kidney events (MAKE) at 28 days (MAKE28) or at study exit, with secondary outcomes including AKI-free days, ICU length of stay and inpatient renal replacement therapy. Results: A total of 1262 patients had AKI and were included. Overall mortality rate was 6.4% (n = 81), with 34.2% (n = 432) fulfilling at least one MAKE28 criteria. The majority of patients fell in the early-transient cohort (n = 704, 55.8%). The early-persistent phenotype had the highest odds of MAKE28 (odds ratio 7.84, 95% confidence interval 5.45-11.3), and the highest mortality rate (18.8%). Oncologic and nephrologic/urologic comorbidities at AKI diagnosis were associated with MAKE28. Conclusion: Temporal nature and trajectory of AKI during a critical care course are significantly associated with patient outcomes, with several subtypes at higher risk for poorer outcomes. Stratification of pediatric critical care-associated AKI into distinct phenotypes is possible and may become an important prognostic tool.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)311-319
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Kidney Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2022


  • acute kidney injury
  • outcome
  • pediatric critical care
  • prognostication
  • renal recovery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation


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