Early detection of lung cancer using artificial intelligence-enhanced optical nanosensing of chromatin alterations in field carcinogenesis

Ali Daneshkhah, Sravya Prabhala, Parvathi Viswanathan, Hariharan Subramanian, Jianan Lin, Andrew S. Chang, Ankit Bharat, Hemant Kumar Roy, Vadim Backman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Supranucleosomal chromatin structure, including chromatin domain conformation, is involved in the regulation of gene expression and its dysregulation has been associated with carcinogenesis. Prior studies have shown that cells in the buccal mucosa carry a molecular signature of lung cancer among the cigarette-smoking population, the phenomenon known as field carcinogenesis or field of injury. Thus, we hypothesized that chromatin structural changes in buccal mucosa can be predictive of lung cancer. However, the small size of the chromatin chain (approximately 20 nm) folded into chromatin packing domains, themselves typically below 300 nm in diameter, preclude the detection of alterations in intradomain chromatin conformation using diffraction-limited optical microscopy. In this study, we developed an optical spectroscopic statistical nanosensing technique to detect chromatin packing domain changes in buccal mucosa as a lung cancer biomarker: chromatin-sensitive partial wave spectroscopic microscopy (csPWS). Artificial intelligence (AI) was applied to csPWS measurements of chromatin alterations to enhance diagnostic performance. Our AI-enhanced buccal csPWS nanocytology of 179 patients at two clinical sites distinguished Stage-I lung cancer versus cancer-free controls with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.92 ± 0.06 for Site 1 (in-state location) and 0.82 ± 0.11 for Site 2 (out-of-state location).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number13702
JournalScientific reports
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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