Background - The Ross procedure has been used increasingly to treat aortic valve disease in children and young adults. Benefits include the lack of anticoagulation after surgery and the potential growth and durability of the autograft. The purpose of this study was to review our institutional experience with the Ross procedure and to compare early outcome in simple aortic valve disease and complex left heart disease. Methods and Results - Between January 1995 and October 1998, 66 patients (median age, 10.8 years; range, 6 days to 34.8 years) underwent the Ross procedure. The primary indication for surgery was isolated valvular disease in 41 patients: aortic stenosis (AS; n=3), aortic insufficiency (AI; n=11), and AS/AI (n=27). The remaining 25 patients had multiple levels of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, 12 of whom had at least moderate AI. Additional left heart disease in the complex group included subaortic stenosis (n=20), arch obstruction (n=7), mitral valve disease (n=5), apical aortic conduit stenosis or insufficiency (n=3), and supravalvar AS (n=2). There were 123 prior interventions performed in 51 patients, including aortic valvotomy/valvuloplasty (n=56), coarctation repair (n=21), subaortic stenosis resection/Konno procedure (n= 10), ventricular septal defect closure (n=8), apical aortic conduit placement (n=3), aortic valve replacement (n=3), and other (n=22). An isolated Ross procedure was performed in 41 patients, 10 of whom required concurrent aortic annulus enlargement procedure to accommodate the larger pulmonary autograft. In the remaining 25 patients, 49 concurrent procedures were performed, including the Konno procedure (n= 17), aortic annulus enlargement (n=2), subaortic membrane resection (n=9), arch augmentation (n=5), mitral valvuloplasty (n=5), ventricular septal defect closure (n=4), apicoaortic conduit division (n=3), and other (n=4). One patient (1.5%) died 3 days after a Ross-Konno procedure, which included arch reconstruction, from presumed arrhythmia. There were no other early deaths. One patient required ECMO (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation) for 3 days after a ventricular tachycardia (VT)-related cardiac arrest. Transient complete heart block was seen in 4 patients; the duration was <5 days. No patient had left ventricular outflow tract obstruction on discharge echocardiography. Neo-AI was graded as none (n=5), trivial-mild (n=57), or moderate (n=3). All 3 patients with moderate neo-AI at discharge had abnormal pulmonary valves before surgery. Perioperative VT was noted in 18 patients (27.2%), 2 of whom were discharged on antiarrhythmic medication. Conclusions - The Ross procedure can be performed in isolation or in combination with other complex procedures with low mortality (1.5%) and acceptable short-term results, even in patients with complex left heart disease and multiple prior interventions. Postoperative VT is common. Anatomic abnormalities of the pulmonary valve preclude its use as an autograft.
- Heart defects, congenital
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)