Balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) is performed in children with significant aortic stenosis (AS). Traditionally, contrast angiography measures the annulus and assesses aortic regurgitation (AR) after each dilation. Echocardiographic guidance is hypothesized to reduce contrast and radiation exposure, without compromising efficacy or safety. Patients < 10 kg undergoing BAV from 2013 to 2022 were retrospectively investigated. Agreement between echocardiographic and angiographic annulus measurements was assessed. Echocardiogram-guided (eBAV) and traditional angiogram-guided (tBAV) outcomes were compared controlling for weight, critical AS, and other congenital heart disease (CHD). Twelve eBAV and 19 tBAV procedures were performed. The median age was 33 days, median weight was 4.3 kg, 7 patients (23%) had critical AS, and 9 patients (29%) had other CHD. Annulus measurements by intraprocedural echocardiography and angiography displayed excellent correlation (ICC 0.95, p < 0.001). eBAV patients received less contrast (0.5 vs 3.5 ml/kg, p < 0.01). Five recent eBAV procedures were performed contrast free. Radiation exposure was not statistically different between the eBAV and tBAV groups (155 vs 313 µGy·M2, p = 0.12). One eBAV patient (8%) and 3 tBAV patients (16%, p = 0.62) experienced serious adverse events. Technical success (gradient < 35 mmHg and increase in AR by ≤ 1 grade) occurred in 11 eBAV patients (92%) and 16 tBAV patients (84%, p = 0.22). AR increased in 2 eBAV patients (17%) and 8 tBAV patients (44%, p = 0.02). eBAV was associated with similar efficacy and significantly lower contrast exposure and risk of aortic regurgitation. There was strong agreement between aortic valve annulus measurements by intraprocedural echocardiography and angiography, ultimately permitting contrast free BAV.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine