Educational performance of children born prematurely

Craig Garfield*, Krzysztof Karbownik, Karna Murthy, Gustave H Falciglia, Jonathan E Guryan, David N Figlio, Jeffrey Roth

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

IMPORTANCE Survivors of preterm birth often present with medical morbidities; however, variation in their long-term educational performance has not been well described. OBJECTIVE To estimate the association between gestational age and 4 outcomes in school-aged children: Readiness to enter kindergarten, scores on standardized tests in elementary and middle school, gifted status, and low performance. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In a retrospective cohort study, children born in Florida between 1992 and 2002 at 23 to 41 weeks' gestation who entered Florida's public schools between 1995 and 2012 were assessed for kindergarten readiness and tested in mathematics and reading in grades 3 through 8. Data analysis was performed from January 12, 2016, to March 1, 2017. EXPOSURES Gestational age at birth. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Kindergarten readiness, scores on the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT), classified as gifted, and classified as low performance. RESULTS A total of 1 527 113 singleton infants with gestational ages of 23 to 41 weeks born between 1992 and 2002 were matched to Florida public school records. Of these, 1 301 497 children were included in the analysis; 641 479 (49.3%) were girls. A total of 301 (65.0%) Florida children born at 23 to 24 weeks' gestation were designated as ready to start kindergarten. When the FCAT test scores were adjusted for potentially confounding maternal and infant variables, children born at 23 to 24 weeks' gestation performed 0.66 SD (95%CI, -0.73 to -0.59) lower compared with those born at full term. A total of 123 554 (9.5%) of all Florida-born public school students were considered gifted, including 17 (1.8%) of those born at 23 to 24 weeks' gestation. In comparison, 75 458 (5.8%) of all Florida-born public school students were low performing; 310 (33.5%) of these children had been born at 23 to 24 weeks' gestation. Kindergarten readiness, FCAT scores, and gifted status were positively related to gestational age, whereas low performance was inversely related to gestational age. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Although gestational age has long been associated with poor educational performance, a sufficient proportion of children born near the limits of viability performed within expected school norms, warranting further investigation into how and why certain children are able to overcome the educational burdens that may follow preterm birth.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)764-770
Number of pages7
JournalJAMA Pediatrics
Volume171
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2017

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Gestational Age
Pregnancy
Premature Birth
Students
Mathematics
Survivors
Reading
Cohort Studies
Retrospective Studies
Mothers
Parturition
Morbidity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this

@article{7505694b2dc8416fabe77887788431c4,
title = "Educational performance of children born prematurely",
abstract = "IMPORTANCE Survivors of preterm birth often present with medical morbidities; however, variation in their long-term educational performance has not been well described. OBJECTIVE To estimate the association between gestational age and 4 outcomes in school-aged children: Readiness to enter kindergarten, scores on standardized tests in elementary and middle school, gifted status, and low performance. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In a retrospective cohort study, children born in Florida between 1992 and 2002 at 23 to 41 weeks' gestation who entered Florida's public schools between 1995 and 2012 were assessed for kindergarten readiness and tested in mathematics and reading in grades 3 through 8. Data analysis was performed from January 12, 2016, to March 1, 2017. EXPOSURES Gestational age at birth. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Kindergarten readiness, scores on the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT), classified as gifted, and classified as low performance. RESULTS A total of 1 527 113 singleton infants with gestational ages of 23 to 41 weeks born between 1992 and 2002 were matched to Florida public school records. Of these, 1 301 497 children were included in the analysis; 641 479 (49.3{\%}) were girls. A total of 301 (65.0{\%}) Florida children born at 23 to 24 weeks' gestation were designated as ready to start kindergarten. When the FCAT test scores were adjusted for potentially confounding maternal and infant variables, children born at 23 to 24 weeks' gestation performed 0.66 SD (95{\%}CI, -0.73 to -0.59) lower compared with those born at full term. A total of 123 554 (9.5{\%}) of all Florida-born public school students were considered gifted, including 17 (1.8{\%}) of those born at 23 to 24 weeks' gestation. In comparison, 75 458 (5.8{\%}) of all Florida-born public school students were low performing; 310 (33.5{\%}) of these children had been born at 23 to 24 weeks' gestation. Kindergarten readiness, FCAT scores, and gifted status were positively related to gestational age, whereas low performance was inversely related to gestational age. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Although gestational age has long been associated with poor educational performance, a sufficient proportion of children born near the limits of viability performed within expected school norms, warranting further investigation into how and why certain children are able to overcome the educational burdens that may follow preterm birth.",
author = "Craig Garfield and Krzysztof Karbownik and Karna Murthy and Falciglia, {Gustave H} and Guryan, {Jonathan E} and Figlio, {David N} and Jeffrey Roth",
year = "2017",
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doi = "10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.1020",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "171",
pages = "764--770",
journal = "JAMA Pediatrics",
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}

Educational performance of children born prematurely. / Garfield, Craig; Karbownik, Krzysztof; Murthy, Karna; Falciglia, Gustave H; Guryan, Jonathan E; Figlio, David N; Roth, Jeffrey.

In: JAMA Pediatrics, Vol. 171, No. 8, 01.08.2017, p. 764-770.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Educational performance of children born prematurely

AU - Garfield, Craig

AU - Karbownik, Krzysztof

AU - Murthy, Karna

AU - Falciglia, Gustave H

AU - Guryan, Jonathan E

AU - Figlio, David N

AU - Roth, Jeffrey

PY - 2017/8/1

Y1 - 2017/8/1

N2 - IMPORTANCE Survivors of preterm birth often present with medical morbidities; however, variation in their long-term educational performance has not been well described. OBJECTIVE To estimate the association between gestational age and 4 outcomes in school-aged children: Readiness to enter kindergarten, scores on standardized tests in elementary and middle school, gifted status, and low performance. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In a retrospective cohort study, children born in Florida between 1992 and 2002 at 23 to 41 weeks' gestation who entered Florida's public schools between 1995 and 2012 were assessed for kindergarten readiness and tested in mathematics and reading in grades 3 through 8. Data analysis was performed from January 12, 2016, to March 1, 2017. EXPOSURES Gestational age at birth. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Kindergarten readiness, scores on the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT), classified as gifted, and classified as low performance. RESULTS A total of 1 527 113 singleton infants with gestational ages of 23 to 41 weeks born between 1992 and 2002 were matched to Florida public school records. Of these, 1 301 497 children were included in the analysis; 641 479 (49.3%) were girls. A total of 301 (65.0%) Florida children born at 23 to 24 weeks' gestation were designated as ready to start kindergarten. When the FCAT test scores were adjusted for potentially confounding maternal and infant variables, children born at 23 to 24 weeks' gestation performed 0.66 SD (95%CI, -0.73 to -0.59) lower compared with those born at full term. A total of 123 554 (9.5%) of all Florida-born public school students were considered gifted, including 17 (1.8%) of those born at 23 to 24 weeks' gestation. In comparison, 75 458 (5.8%) of all Florida-born public school students were low performing; 310 (33.5%) of these children had been born at 23 to 24 weeks' gestation. Kindergarten readiness, FCAT scores, and gifted status were positively related to gestational age, whereas low performance was inversely related to gestational age. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Although gestational age has long been associated with poor educational performance, a sufficient proportion of children born near the limits of viability performed within expected school norms, warranting further investigation into how and why certain children are able to overcome the educational burdens that may follow preterm birth.

AB - IMPORTANCE Survivors of preterm birth often present with medical morbidities; however, variation in their long-term educational performance has not been well described. OBJECTIVE To estimate the association between gestational age and 4 outcomes in school-aged children: Readiness to enter kindergarten, scores on standardized tests in elementary and middle school, gifted status, and low performance. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In a retrospective cohort study, children born in Florida between 1992 and 2002 at 23 to 41 weeks' gestation who entered Florida's public schools between 1995 and 2012 were assessed for kindergarten readiness and tested in mathematics and reading in grades 3 through 8. Data analysis was performed from January 12, 2016, to March 1, 2017. EXPOSURES Gestational age at birth. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Kindergarten readiness, scores on the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT), classified as gifted, and classified as low performance. RESULTS A total of 1 527 113 singleton infants with gestational ages of 23 to 41 weeks born between 1992 and 2002 were matched to Florida public school records. Of these, 1 301 497 children were included in the analysis; 641 479 (49.3%) were girls. A total of 301 (65.0%) Florida children born at 23 to 24 weeks' gestation were designated as ready to start kindergarten. When the FCAT test scores were adjusted for potentially confounding maternal and infant variables, children born at 23 to 24 weeks' gestation performed 0.66 SD (95%CI, -0.73 to -0.59) lower compared with those born at full term. A total of 123 554 (9.5%) of all Florida-born public school students were considered gifted, including 17 (1.8%) of those born at 23 to 24 weeks' gestation. In comparison, 75 458 (5.8%) of all Florida-born public school students were low performing; 310 (33.5%) of these children had been born at 23 to 24 weeks' gestation. Kindergarten readiness, FCAT scores, and gifted status were positively related to gestational age, whereas low performance was inversely related to gestational age. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Although gestational age has long been associated with poor educational performance, a sufficient proportion of children born near the limits of viability performed within expected school norms, warranting further investigation into how and why certain children are able to overcome the educational burdens that may follow preterm birth.

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