Deep learning algorithms for left ventricle (LV) segmentation are prone to bias towards the training dataset. This study assesses sex- and age-dependent performance differences when using deep learning for automatic LV segmentation. Retrospective analysis of 100 healthy subjects undergoing cardiac MRI from 2012 to 2018, with 10 men and women in the following age groups: 18–30, 31–40, 41–50, 51–60, and 61–80 years old. Subjects underwent 1.5 T, 2D CINE SSFP MRI. 35 pathologic cases from local clinical exams and the SCMR 2015 consensus contours dataset were also analyzed. A fully convolutional network (FCN) similar to U-Net trained on the U.K. Biobank was used to automatically segment LV endocardial and epicardial contours. FCN and manual segmentation were compared using Dice metrics and measurements of end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), mass (LVM), and ejection fraction (LVEF). Paired t-tests and linear regressions were used to analyze measurement differences with respect to sex and age. Dice metrics (median ± IQR) for n = 135 cases were 0.94 ± 0.04/0.87 ± 0.10 (ED endocardium/ES endocardium). Measurement biases (mean ± SD) among the healthy cohort were − 0.3 ± 10.1 mL for EDV, − 6.7 ± 9.6 mL for ESV, 4.6 ± 6.4% for LVEF, and − 2.2 ± 11.0 g for LVM; biases were independent of sex and age. Biases among the 35 pathologic cases were 0.1 ± 19 mL for EDV, − 4.8 ± 19 mL for ESV, 2.0 ± 7.6% for LVEF, and 1.0 ± 20 g for LVM. In conclusion, automatic segmentation by the Biobank-trained FCN was independent of age and sex. Improvements in end-systolic basal slice detection are needed to decrease bias and improve precision in ESV and LVEF.
- Automatic segmentation
- Cardiac magnetic resonance
- Deep learning
- Fully convolutional network
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine