Importance: In the Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the Lives of Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure (DELIVER) trial, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of time to first worsening heart failure (HF) event or cardiovascular death in patients with HF with mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction (EF). Objective: To evaluate the effect of dapagliflozin on total (ie, first and recurrent) HF events and cardiovascular death in this population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this prespecified analysis of the DELIVER trial, the proportional rates approach of Lin, Wei, Yang, and Ying (LWYY) and a joint frailty model were used to examine the effect of dapagliflozin on total HF events and cardiovascular death. Several subgroups were examined to test for heterogeneity in the effect of dapagliflozin, including left ventricular EF. Participants were enrolled from August 2018 to December 2020, and data were analyzed from August to October 2022. Interventions: Dapagliflozin, 10 mg, once daily or matching placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The outcome was total episodes of worsening HF (hospitalization for HF or urgent HF visit requiring intravenous HF therapies) and cardiovascular death. Results: Of 6263 included patients, 2747 (43.9%) were women, and the mean (SD) age was 71.7 (9.6) years. There were 1057 HF events and cardiovascular deaths in the placebo group compared with 815 in the dapagliflozin group. Patients with more HF events had features of more severe HF, such as higher N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level, worse kidney function, more prior HF hospitalizations, and longer duration of HF, although EF was similar to those with no HF events. In the LWYY model, the rate ratio for total HF events and cardiovascular death for dapagliflozin compared with placebo was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.67-0.89; P <.001) compared with a hazard ratio of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.73-0.92; P <.001) in a traditional time to first event analysis. In the joint frailty model, the rate ratio was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.65-0.81; P <.001) for total HF events and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.72-1.05; P =.14) for cardiovascular death. The results were similar for total HF hospitalizations (without urgent HF visits) and cardiovascular death and in all subgroups, including those defined by EF. Conclusions and Relevance: In the DELIVER trial, dapagliflozin reduced the rate of total HF events (first and subsequent HF hospitalizations and urgent HF visits) and cardiovascular death regardless of patient characteristics, including EF. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03619213.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine