The purpose of this research was to study the effect of knowledge of directional mis-tunings on the tuning accuracy of beginning and intermediate wind players. Subjects (N = 197) were instrumental wind players who tuned to either an For a B-flat with both their own instrument—a performance task—and the tuning knob of a variable-pitch keyboard—a perception task. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: Group 1 knew that their instruments and the tuning knob were mis-tuned in the sharp direction; Group 2 knew that their instruments and the tuning knob were mistuned in the flat direction; and Group 3 had no information regarding direction of mistunings. Data demonstrated that only years of instruction significantly affected subjects' tuning accuracy. There were no significant differences due to treatment, instrument type, or tuning pitch. There were only 6 in-tune performance responses and 12 in-tune perception responses. Approaching the target pitch from above resulted in more sharp responses; approaching it from below resulted in more flat responses; and having no knowledge of direction of mistuning resulted in an equal number of sharp and flat responses. There were a greater number of flat responses in the first year of instruction and a greater number of sharp responses in the fourth year. Finally, there was consistent improvement from the first to the fourth year in both perception and performance tuning tasks.
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