Effect of Laser-Matter Interaction on Molten Pool Flow and Keyhole Dynamics

Nadia Kouraytem*, Xuxiao Li, Ross Cunningham, Cang Zhao, Niranjan Parab, Tao Sun, Anthony D. Rollett, Ashley D. Spear, Wenda Tan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

102 Scopus citations


Laser-induced keyholing occurs in additive manufacturing and welding processes, but the keyhole dynamics have not been well understood. A multiphase and multiphysics numerical model is used to predict the keyhole shapes recorded in the experimental observations and to predict transient and nonuniform distributions of laser absorption, temperature, and flow velocity in the process. When compared against data from a state-of-the-art dynamic x-ray radiography technique, good agreement is found for the keyhole shapes and fluctuation of the gas-liquid interface, thereby validating the simulation method. A detailed discussion is then given to elucidate the effects of laser absorption on the dynamic behavior of the front and rear keyhole walls. A quantitative comparison of different driving forces on the keyhole is also given to evaluate their significance to the keyhole dynamics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number064054
JournalPhysical Review Applied
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 24 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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