Effect of time-restricted eating on sex hormone levels in premenopausal and postmenopausal females

Faiza Kalam, Rand T. Akasheh, Sofia Cienfuegos, Aparna Ankireddy, Kelsey Gabel, Mark Ezpeleta, Shuhao Lin, Chandra M. Tamatam, Sekhar P. Reddy, Bonnie Spring, Seema A. Khan, Krista A. Varady*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Objective: Concerns have been raised regarding the impact of time-restricted eating (TRE) on sex hormones in females. This study examined how TRE affects sex steroids in premenopausal and postmenopausal females. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of an 8-week TRE study (4- to 6-hour eating window) conducted in adults with obesity. Men and perimenopausal females were excluded. Females were classified into two groups based on menstrual status: premenopausal (n = 12) or postmenopausal (n = 11). Results: After 8 weeks, body weight decreased in premenopausal females (−3% ± 2%) and postmenopausal females (−4% ± 2%) (main effect of time, p < 0.001), with no difference between groups (no group × time interaction). Circulating levels of testosterone, androstenedione, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) did not change in either group (no group × time interaction). Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations decreased (p < 0.05) in premenopausal (−14% ± 32%) and postmenopausal females (−13% ± 34%; main effect of time, p = 0.03), with no difference between groups. Estradiol, estrone, and progesterone were measured only in postmenopausal females, and they remained unchanged. Conclusions: In premenopausal females, androgens and SHBG remained unchanged during TRE, whereas DHEA decreased. In postmenopausal females, estrogens, progesterone, androgens, and SHBG did not change, but DHEA was reduced.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)57-62
Number of pages6
Issue numberS1
StatePublished - Feb 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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