Effective dose per unit Kerma-Area Product conversion factors in adults undergoing Modified Barium Swallow Studies

Heather Shaw Bonilha*, Janina Wilmskoetter, Sameer V. Tipnis, Bonnie Martin-Harris, Walter Huda

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


This study presents an investigation of adult effective dose (E) per unit Kerma-Area Product (KAP) in Modified Barium Swallow Study (MBSS) examinations. PC program for X-ray Monte Carlo (version 2.0.1) was used to calculate patient organ doses during MBSS examinations, which used combined to generate effective dose. Normalized patient doses were obtained by dividing the effective dose (mSv) by the incident KAP (Gy·cm2). Five standard projections were studied and the importance of X-ray beam size and in patient size (body mass index) were investigated. Lateral projections had an average E/ KAP conversion factor of 0.19 ± 0.04 mSv/Gy·cm2. The average E/KAP was highest for upper gastrointestinal (GI) anterior- posterior projections (0.27 ± 0.04 mSv/Gy·cm2) and lowest for upper GI posterior-anterior projections (0.09 ± 0.03 mSv/ Gy·cm2). E/KAP always increased with increasing filtration and/or X-ray tube voltage. Reducing the X-ray beam cross-sectional area increased the E/KAP conversion factors. Small patients have the E/KAP conversion factors that are twice those of a standard adult. Conversion factors for effective dose of adult patients undergoing MBSS examinations must account for X-ray beam projection, beam quality (kV and filtration), image size and patient size.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)269-277
Number of pages9
JournalRadiation Protection Dosimetry
Issue number3
StatePublished - Nov 1 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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