Aims: Dapagliflozin resulted in significant and sustained reductions in first and recurrent heart failure (HF) hospitalizations among patients with HF across the spectrum of ejection fraction. How treatment with dapagliflozin differentially impacts hospitalization for HF of varying complexity is not well studied. Methods and results: In the DELIVER and DAPA-HF trials, we examined the effects of dapagliflozin on adjudicated HF hospitalizations of varying complexity and hospital length of stay (LOS). HF hospitalizations requiring intensive care unit stay, intravenous vasoactive therapies, invasive/non-invasive ventilation, mechanical fluid removal or mechanical circulatory support were categorized as complicated. The balance was classified as uncomplicated. Of the total 1209 HF hospitalizations reported in DELIVER, 854 (71%) were uncomplicated and 355 (29%) were complicated. Of the total 799 HF hospitalizations reported in DAPA-HF, 453 (57%) were uncomplicated and 346 (43%) were complicated. Relative to patients experiencing a first uncomplicated HF hospitalization, those with complicated HF hospitalizations had a significantly higher in-hospital mortality both in DELIVER (16.7% vs. 2.3%, p < 0.001) and DAPA-HF (15.1% vs. 3.8%, p < 0.001). Dapagliflozin similarly reduced total ‘uncomplicated’ (DELIVER: rate ratio [RR] 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55–0.82 and DAPA-HF: RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.54–0.87) and ‘complicated’ HF hospitalizations (DELIVER: RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.63–1.06 and DAPA-HF: RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.97). Dapagliflozin consistently reduced hospitalizations irrespective of their LOS: <5 days (DELIVER: RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58–0.99 and DAPA-HF: RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.42–0.80) or ≥5 days (DELIVER: RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.58–0.86 and DAPA-HF: RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62–0.94). Conclusion: A substantial proportion of hospitalizations (∼30–40%) among patients with HF irrespective of ejection fraction required intensification of treatment beyond standard intravenous diuretics. Such patients experienced significantly higher in-hospital mortality. Treatment with dapagliflozin consistently reduced HF hospitalizations regardless of severity of inpatient course or LOS. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, DELIVER (NCT03619213) and DAPA-HF (NCT03036124).
- Heart failure
- Length of stay
- Sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine