Background: The Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) is a multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial designed to examine the efficacy and safety of a dietary intervention to reduce serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) in children with elevated LDL-C. Methods and Results: The effects of dietary intake of fat and cholesterol and of sexual maturation and body mass index (BMI) on LDL-C were examined in a 3-year longitudinal study of 663 boys and girls (age 8 to 10 years at baseline) with elevated LDL-C levels. Multiple linear regression was used to predict LDL-C at 3 years. For boys, LDL-C decreased by 0.018 mmol/L for each 10 mg/4.2 MJ decrease in dietary cholesterol (P<.05). For girls, no single nutrient was significant in the model, but a treatment group effect was evident (P<.05). In both sexes, BMI at 3 years and LDL-C at baseline were significant and positive predictors of LDL-C levels. In boys, the average LDL-C level was 0.603 mmol/L lower at Tanner stage 4+ than at Tanner stage 1 (P<.01). In girls, the average LDL-C level was 0.274 mmol/L lower at Tanner stage 4+ than at Tanner stage 1 (P<.05). Conclusions: In pubertal children, sexual maturation, BMI, dietary intervention (in girls), and dietary cholesterol (in boys) were significant in determining LDL-C. Sexual maturation was the factor associated with the greatest difference in LDL-C. Clinicians screening for dyslipidemia or following dyslipidemic children should be aware of the powerful effects of pubertal change on measurements of lipoproteins.
- Coronary disease
- Diet hyperlipoproteinemia
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)