Effects of high-dose cholecalciferol on serum markers of inflammation and immunity in patients with early chronic kidney disease

J. A. Alvarez, S. M. Zughaier, J. Law, L. Hao, H. Wasse, T. R. Ziegler, V. Tangpricha*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


Background/objectives:Vitamin D has anti-inflammatory and immune-regulating properties. We aimed to determine if high-dose cholecalciferol supplementation for 1 year in subjects with early chronic kidney disease (CKD) improved circulating markers of inflammation and immunity.Subjects/methods:In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 46 subjects with early CKD (stages 2 and 3) were supplemented with oral cholecalciferol (50 000 IU weekly for 12 weeks followed by 50 000 IU every other week for 40 weeks) or a matching placebo for 1 year. Serum tumor necrosis factor-, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interferon gamma-induced protein-10 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin were measured at baseline, 12 weeks and 1 year. Serum cathelicidin (LL-37) was measured at baseline and 12 weeks. An in vitro experiment was performed to investigate the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3) treatment on MCP-1 secretion in THP-1 monocytes activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Results:By 12 weeks, serum MCP-1 decreased in the cholecalciferol group (66.2±2.5 to 60.8±2.6 pg/ml, group-by-time interaction P=0.02) but was not different from baseline at 1 year. Other markers of inflammation and immunity did not change. In vitro, LPS- and Pseudomonas-activated monocytes treated with 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 had significantly less MCP-1 secretion compared with untreated cells.Conclusions:High-dose cholecalciferol decreased serum MCP-1 concentrations by 12 weeks in patients with early CKD, although the decrease was not maintained for the remainder of the year. In vitro results confirm an MCP-1-lowering effect of vitamin D. Future studies should determine if vitamin D-mediated reductions in MCP-1 concentrations reflect improved clinical outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)264-269
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • cathelicidin
  • chronic kidney disease
  • cytokines
  • inflammation
  • monocyte chemoattractant protein-1
  • vitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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