Effects of human immunodeficiency virus on protracted amenorrhea and ovarian dysfunction

Helen E. Cejtin*, Ann Kalinowski, Peter Bacchetti, Robert N. Taylor, D. Heather Watts, Seijeoung Kim, L. Stewart Massad, Susan Preston-Martin, Kathryn Anastos, Michael Moxley, Howard L. Minkoff

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

87 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: To characterize ovarian failure and prolonged amenorrhea from other causes in women who are both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive and seronegative. METHODS: This was a cohort study nested in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multicenter U.S. study of HIV infection in women. Prolonged amenorrhea was defined as no vaginal bleeding for at least 1 year. A serum follicle stimulating hormone more than 25 milli-International Units/mL and prolonged amenorrhea were used to define ovarian failure. Logistic regressions, χ, and t tests were performed to estimate relationships between HIV-infection and cofactors with both ovarian failure and amenorrhea from other causes. RESULTS: Results were available for 1,431 women (1,139 HIV seropositive and 292 seronegative). More than one half of the HIV positive women with prolonged amenorrhea of at least 1 year did not have ovarian failure. When adjusted for age, HIV seropositive women were about three times more likely than seronegative women to have prolonged amenorrhea without ovarian failure. Body mass index, serum albumin, and parity were all negatively associated with ovarian failure in HIV seropositive women. CONCLUSION: HIV serostatus is associated with prolonged amenorrhea. It is difficult to ascertain whether the cause of prolonged amenorrhea is ovarian in HIV-infected women without additional testing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1423-1431
Number of pages9
JournalObstetrics and gynecology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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