In the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Type II Coronary Intervention Study, patients with Type II hyperlipoproteinemia and coronary artery disease (CAD) were placed on a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet and then were randomly allocated to receive either 6 g cholestyramine 4 times daily or placebo. This double-blind study evaluated the effects of cholestyramine on the progression of CAD as assessed by angiography. Diet alone reduced the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 6% in both groups. After randomization, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased another 5% in the placebo group and 26% in the cholestyramine-treated group. Coronary angiography was performed in 116 patients before and after 5 years of treatment. CAD progressed in 49% (28 of 57) of the placebo-treated patients vs 32% (19 of 59) of the cholestyramine-treated patients (p < .05). When only definite progression was considered, 35% (20 of 57) of the placebo-treated patients vs 25% (15 of 59) of the cholestyramine-treated patients exhibited definite progression; the difference was not statistically significant. However, when this analysis was performed with adjustment for baseline inequalities of risk factors, effect of treatment was more pronounced. Of lesions causing 50% or greater stenosis at baseline, 33% of placebo-treated and 12% of cholestyramine-treated patients manifested lesion progression (p < .05). Similar analyses with other end points (percent of baseline lesions that progressed, lesions that progressed to occlusion, lesions that regressed, size of lesion change, and all cardiovascular end points) all favored the cholestyramine-treated group, but were not statistically significant. Thus, although the sample size does not allow a definitive conclusion to be drawn, this study suggests that cholestyramine treatment retards the rate of progression of CAD in patients with Type II hyperlipoproteinemia.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)