Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin of depigmentation occurring secondary to melanocyte destruction. Vitiligo and other leukodermas have a profound impact on quality of life. Current therapies include medical options, such as phototherapy, topical and systemic corticosteroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors, immunomodulators, and antioxidiants, and surgical options. Surgical options provide melanocytic cells to previously depigmented areas and use either tissue grafting or cellular grafting methods. Topical treatments are often insufficient, and many of the current surgical procedures have shown variable response rates. In this review, we discuss the process of the cellular grafting melanocyte-keratinocyte transplantation procedure (MKTP) and critically analyze its efficacy and safety in the treatment of vitiligo and other leukodermas. PubMed was searched for studies (2001–2017) describing the use of MKTP in patients with vitiligo or other leukodermas. Articles or trials discussing the use of MKTP for these patients were selected for in-depth review. Clinically relevant results regarding efficacy and safety of MKTP in vitiligo and leukoderma patients were analyzed. Numerous trials and case series/reports have demonstrated tolerability and efficacy of MKTP with repigmentation for patients with refractory, stable vitiligo. However, the response rates have been variable, likely influenced by vitiligo type and affected areas. Future research and clinical reporting will provide more insight on which phenotypes may benefit from MKTP.
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