Efficacy of endovascular Z-configuration stenting for malignant versus nonmalignant caval obstruction

Timothy M. Han, Sergey Bondarev, Eric J. Keller, Robert L. Vogelzang, Scott A. Resnick*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objective: The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with symptom resolution after endovascular stenting for superior or inferior vena cava syndrome. Methods: Eighty-six consecutive vena cava Z-configuration stent placements in 82 patients (53 ± 14 years old) at a single institution were reviewed for patient demographics, comorbidities, and durability of stent patency (also evaluated were persistent or recurrent symptoms, stent occlusion, and need for repeated stenting). Logistic regression was used to identify independent factors associated with stent patency, and Φ coefficients and analysis of variance were used to compare cases subdivided by lesion location (superior vena cava, inferior vena cava) and the presence or absence of malignant disease. Results: Clinical follow-up was available in 77 of 86 (90%) cases. Technical success with clinical failure (persistent symptoms) occurred in 40% of these cases with a median follow-up of 67 (interquartile range, 14-570) days and mortality rate of 63% during this period. Malignant obstructions had a significantly higher clinical failure rate of 54% compared with 15% for nonmalignant obstructions (Φ = 0.34; P =.002). However, only metastatic disease was independently associated with clinical failure when controlling for demographics, other comorbidities, and differential follow-up (adjusted odds ratio, 8.27; 95% confidence interval, 2.79-24.50). Conclusions: Vena cava Z-stenting effectively resolves symptoms in 85% of nonmalignant obstructions compared with only 46% of malignant obstructions. Patients should be counseled accordingly, and those with malignant obstructions may require closer follow-up to evaluate the need for reintervention and goals of care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)939-944
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2020


  • Caval
  • Malignant
  • Nonmalignant
  • Palliation
  • Stent

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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