Efficacy of preoperative autologous blood donation: Analysis of blood loss and transfusion practice in total hip replacement

Dinna B. Billote*, Silas N. Glisson, David Green, Richard L. Wixson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations

Abstract

Study Objective: To determine the frequency of allogeneic transfusion for total hip replacement (THR) surgery and to examine the efficacy of preoperative autologous blood donation (PABD) under specified, standardized blood transfusion guidelines. Design: Prospective, nonrandomized study. Setting: University medical center. Patients: All ASA physical status I, II, III, and IV patients undergoing single, primary, THR surgery from April 1998 to March 1999. Interventions: All patients received standardized transfusion and anticoagulation therapy. Demographic, blood loss, and transfusion data were collected and compared between all patients participating in PABD (donors) and patients not participating in PABD (nondonors). Overall allogeneic blood exposure was established. Since most anemic patients could not participate in PABD, allogeneic transfusion frequency was also examined in a subset of nonanemic patients (hemoglobin ≥ 12 g/dL) who were potentially able to participate in PABD. Measurements and Main Results: n = 231 patients, 142 donors and 89 nondonors. Mean estimated blood volume (EBV) of donors was 4991 ± 1042 mL versus nondonors 4631 ± 1108 mL (p < 0.01). ASA physical status I-II/III-IV among donors was 118/24 versus nondonors 61/28 (p < 0.01). Overall allogeneic blood exposure was 22% (51/231). Allogeneic transfusion frequency for all donors was 15% (22/142) versus nondonors 33% (29/89) (p < 0.05). Among nonanemic patients, donor versus nondonor EBV and ASA physical status I-II/III-IV were 5074 ± 1019 mL versus 4743 ± 1172 mL and 107/20 versus 48/15 (p = NS); allogeneic transfusion frequency reduced to 13% (16/127) versus 17% (11/63) (p = NS), respectively. Conclusions: Allogeneic blood exposure was > 10% despite the use of PABD. The efficacy of PABD has been obscured by the fact that donors of autologous blood tend to be larger and healthier than nondonors. After exclusion of anemic patients, autologous donors and nondonors were clinically comparable and the difference in allogeneic blood exposure was not statistically significant. PABD offers only a modest, if any, benefit for THR surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)537-542
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Clinical Anesthesia
Volume12
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - 2000

Keywords

  • Arthroplasty
  • Blood transfusion, autologous
  • Hip replacement, total

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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