Efficacy of single-source rapid kV-switching dual-energy CT for characterization of non-uric acid renal stones: a prospective ex vivo study using anthropomorphic phantom

Roberto Cannella, Mohammed Shahait, Alessandro Furlan, Feng Zhang, Joel D. Bigley, Timothy D. Averch, Amir A. Borhani*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate the accuracy of rapid kV-switching single-source dual-energy computed tomography (rsDECT) for prediction of classes of non-uric-acid stones. Materials and methods: Non-uric-acid renal stones retrieved via percutaneous nephrolithotomy were prospectively collected between January 2017 and February 2018 in a single institution. Only stones ≥ 5 mm and with pure composition (i.e., ≥ 80% composed of one component) were included. Stone composition was determined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The stones were scanned in 32-cm-wide anthropomorphic whole-body phantom using rsDECT. The effective atomic number (Zeff), the attenuation at 40 keV (HU40), 70 keV (HU70), and 140 keV (HU140) virtual monochromatic sets of images as well as the ratios between the attenuations were calculated. Values of stone classes were compared using ANOVA and Mann–Whitney U test. Receiver operating curves and area under curve (AUC) were calculated. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The final study sample included 31 stones from 31 patients consisting of 25 (81%) calcium-based, 4 (13%) cystine, and 2 (6%) struvite pure stones. The mean size of the stones was 9.9 ± 2.4 mm. The mean Zeff of the stones was 12.01 ± 0.54 for calcium-based, 11.10 ± 0.68 for struvite, and 10.23 ± 0.75 for cystine stones (p < 0.001). Zeff had the best efficacy to separate different classes of stones. The calculated AUC was 0.947 for Zeff; 0.833 for HU40; 0.880 for HU70; and 0.893 for HU140. Conclusion: Zeff derived from rsDECT has superior performance to HU and attenuation ratios for separation of different classes of non-uric-acid stones.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAbdominal Radiology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2019

Keywords

  • Dual-energy CT
  • Kidney stones
  • Rapid kVp switching
  • Single-source
  • Stone composition
  • Urolithiasis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Gastroenterology
  • Urology

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