The use of a nonclassical light source for studying molecular electronic structure has been of great interest in many applications. Here we report a theoretical study of entangled two-photon absorption (ETPA) in organic chromophores, and we provide new insight into the quantitative relation between ETPA and the corresponding unentangled TPA based on the significantly different line widths associated with entangled and unentangled processes. A sum-over-states approach is used to obtain classical TPA and ETPA cross sections and to explore the contribution of each electronic state to the ETPA process. The transition moments and energies needed for this calculation were obtained from a second linear-response (SLR) TDDFT method [J. Chem. Phys., 2016, 144, 204105], which enables the treatment of relatively large polythiophene dendrimers that serve as two-photon absorbers. In addition, the SLR calculations provide estimates of the excited state radiative line width, which we relate to the entangled two-photon density of states using a quantum electrodynamic analysis. This analysis shows that for the dendrimers being studied, the line width for ETPA is orders of magnitude narrower than for TPA, corresponding to highly entangled photons with a large Schmidt number. The calculated cross sections are in good agreement with the experimentally reported values. We also carried out a state-resolved analysis to unveil pathways for the ETPA process, and these demonstrate significant interference behavior. We emphasize that the use of entangled photons in TPA process plays a critical role in probing the detailed electronic structure of a molecule by probing light-matter interference nature in the quantum limit.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry